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固体氧化物燃料电池中的陶瓷材料
作者:韩敏芳 张永亮 
单位:1. 清华大学热能工程系 电力系统及发电设备控制和仿真国家重点实验室 北京 100083  2. 清华东莞创新中心 广东 东莞 523808 
关键词:固体氧化物燃料电池 氧离子导体 混合离子电子导体 金属陶瓷阳极 钙钛矿电极 
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出版年,卷(期):页码:2017,45(11):0-0
DOI:
摘要:

 固体氧化物燃料电池(SOFC)也称为陶瓷燃料电池,其关键组成电解质、阴极和阳极均为陶瓷氧化物材料。致密电解质薄膜材料是核心,主要是(纯)氧离子导体,其电导率依赖于氧化物中的氧离子空位传导,氧空位主要来源于氧化物中低价金属离子掺杂;工业上主要使用萤石结构Y2O3 掺杂的ZrO2(YSZ)和Sc2O3 掺杂的ZrO2(ScSZ),更高氧离子电导率的材料包括掺杂的CeO2、δ-Bi2O3 和掺杂的LaGaO3 钙钛矿材料,有望在中低温下使用。电极都是多孔陶瓷材料,同时具有氧离子传导和电子传导性能。工业上阳极主要采用Ni-YSZ 多孔金属陶瓷,具有混合离子电子导电性(MIEC)的钙钛矿材料是现在的研究热点。工业上阴极材料主要是掺杂LaMnO3 和YSZ 复合陶瓷,在高温下具有良好的电化学性能和稳定性;中高温范围内被认可的材料是掺杂LaFeO3 基钙钛矿材料,以La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ 为代表,具有良好的电化学活性和稳定性;优化材料组分和结构仍然是阴极材料的研究重点,也是SOFC 领域必须突破的重要方向。

 Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is known as a ceramic fuel cell. The key components including electrolyte, cathode and anode are ceramic materials. The dense electrolyte film requires a pure oxygen ion conductivity. In general, the oxygen ion conductivity is mainly derived from the oxygen vacancy in oxide materials by doping lower valence metallic ions. Fluorite structured Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) and Sc2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (ScSZ) are the main electrolyte materials for industrial application. The doped CeO2, δ-Bi2O3 and doped LaGaO3 perovskite, with a higher oxygen ion conductivity, have a potential application for SOFC at a lower temperature. The electrodes are porous ceramic materials with oxygen ion and electron conductivity. Ni-YSZ cermet has been used in industries due to its high electrochemical performance. The perovskite materials with a mixed ionic and electronic conductivity (MIEC) have attracted considerable attention because of their potential applications in SOFC under hydrocarbon fuels. Doped LaMnO3-YSZ composite ceramic is a widely used cathode material for high-temperature SOFC, having a high electrochemical performance and a good stability in long-term operation. While the doped LaFeO3, especially La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3, is used in intermediate-temperature SOFC, also showing good electrochemical activity and stability. Moreover, optimizing the composition and structure of cathode material remains a research focus for the development of SOFC.

基金项目:
国家重大研发计划(2017YFB0601903);北京市百名领军人才项目(Z151100000315031);山西省科技厅项目(MD2014-08);东莞市引进创新科研团队(201460720100025);清华大学自主科研计划(2015THZ0)。
作者简介:
韩敏芳(1967—),女,博士,教授。
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